Its sweet and citrusy odor is one of the most frequently used fragrances in cosmetic formulations. Also, it’s one of the most common terpenes in nature. It can be found in several food items but also in botanical insecticides and cleaning products. The medical properties of D-Limonene are well observed and include anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antinociceptive, anticancer, antidiabetic, antihyperalgesic, and antiviral effects.
Found in – Orange
Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Citrus latifolia Tanaka Essential Oil and Limonene in Experimental Mouse Models:
Kummer, R., Fachini-Queiroz, F. C., Estevão-Silva, C. F., Grespan, R., Silva, E. L., Bersani-Amado, C. A., & Cuman, R. K. (2013)
Anti-anxiety & Sedative
Anti-stress effects of d-limonene and its metabolite perillyl alcohol.
d’Alessio, P. A., Bisson, J. F., & Béné, M. C. (2014)
Anxiolytic and sedative effects of extracts and essential oil from Citrus aurantium L.
Carvalho-Freitas, M. I., & Costa, M. (2002)
- Effects of the essential oil from Citrus aurantium L. in experimental anxiety models in mice:
de Moraes Pultrini, A., Galindo, L. A., Costa, M. (2006)
- Central effects of citral, myrcene, and limonene, constituents of essential oil chemotypes from Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown.
Gurgel do Vale, T., Couto Furtado, E., Santos Jr., J. G., & Viana, G. S. B. (2002)
Antihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model.
Piccinelli, A. C., Santos, J. A., Konkiewitz, E. C., Oesterreich, S. A., Formagio, A. S., Croda, J., Ziff, E. B., & Kassuya, C. A. (2015)
Limonene reduces hyperalgesia induced by gp120 and cytokines by modulating IL-1 β and protein expression in mice’s spinal cord.
Piccinelli, A. C., Morato, P. N., Dos Santos Barbosa, M., Croda, J., Sampson, J., Kong, X., Konkiewitz, E. C., Ziff, E. B., Amaya-Farfan, J., & Kassuya, C. A. (2017)
Reduces Drug-Dependency Behavior
Limonene Inhibits Methamphetamine-Induced Sensitizations via the Regulation of Dopamine Receptor Supersensitivity
Gu, S. M., Kim, S. Y., Lamichhane, S., Hong, J.T., & Yun, J. (2019)
Limonene suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced production of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines in RAW 264.7 macrophages.
Yoon, W. J., Lee, N. H., & Hyun, C. G. (2010)
Protective Effect of D-Limonene against Oxidative Stress-Induced Cell Damage in Human Lens Epithelial Cells via the p38 Pathway.
Bai, J., Zheng, Y., Wang, G., & Liu, P. (2016)
Oral administration of d-limonene controls inflammation in rat colitis and displays anti-inflammatory properties as diet supplementation in humans.
d’Alessio, P. A., Ostan, R., Bisson, J. F., Schulzke, J. D., Ursini, M. V., & Béné, M. C. (2013)