In addition to personalized nutrition, many other terms are used, such as precision nutrition, stratified nutrition, tailored nutrition, and individually tailored nutrition.
- Stratified and tailored nutrition are very similar. These approaches attempt to group individuals with shared characteristics and deliver nutritional intervention/advice suited to each group.
- Personalized nutrition and individually tailored nutrition mean similar things and go a step further by delivering nutritional intervention/advice suited to each individual.
- Precision nutrition is the most ambitious of the descriptors. It suggests that it is possible to have sufficient quantitative understanding about the complex relationships between an individual, his/her food consumption, and his/her phenotype to offer nutritional intervention/advice, which is known to be individually beneficial. The degree of scientific certainty required for precision nutrition is much greater than that needed for the other approaches.
- Nutrigenetics is an aspect of personalized nutrition that studies the different phenotypic responses (i.e., weight, blood pressure, plasma cholesterol, or glucose levels) to a specific diet (i.e., low fat or Mediterranean diets), depending on the genotype of the individual.
- Nutrigenomics involves the characterization of all gene products affected by nutrients and their metabolic consequences.
- Exposome is the collection of environmental factors, such as stress, physical activity, and diet, to which an individual is exposed, affecting health.